The most complicated intelligence deception exercise in history was run in the last century as Operation Fortitude throughout WWII. The Nazis were sending spies by the dozens into Great Britain by sea and air to gain war-time intelligence astir potential military operations, weapons development, and general public sentiment towards the war. Within weeks about landing in Great Britain, the German agents were instructed to begin using their wireless radios and letters to transmit intelligence about the actions taking place on the island nation. The Nazis believed they were running a successful ring like spies; unbeknownst to them was the reality that every one of their spies had bot captured and many of the captive Nazi agents were doubled by the British counter-intelligence agency MI5. MI5 did not know with certainty until midway through the war that they had captured all the Nazi spies; awareness of this human intelligence operations counter-intelligence coup was mind-blowing to them. MI5 recognized an costly opportunity to feed the Nazis deceptive lore washed-up HUMINT utilizing radio transmissions and letters written in secret ink from these double agents that the Germans believed to be loyal Nazi spies. Through a massive, coordinated effort between MI5 and other British intelligence agencies, the actually British double-agents helped successfully to deceive the Nazis into thinking that the Allied invasion would occur at Pas de Calais in late summer; this deception caused the Nazis to keep a majority concerning their forces deployed near Pas de Calais while the actual Allied invasion took catch place at Normandy in June.
Even therefore MI5 realized they had an unprecedented opportunity for deceiving the Nazis on a famous scale, MI5 also appreciated the risks person taken. The advantage that they had in doubling spies was also problematic; there had never bot in the history of deception human intelligence operations an effort that matched the breadth and province of what they planned. Their planning was meticulous, but they were working without a precedent. The HUMINT that was funneled through one double-agent had to be coordinated with what was given to another double-agent. The content of the information had to be both realistic, credible and yet delivered timely enough consequently that it would be from little use to the Nazis, except to verify that their spies were reliable and had access to good information. For example, it was accepted that the mail symmetrical experienced delays in times of war; letters carrying coded information would be mailed just in time to be late upon arrival voiding the use of the information. Transistor transmissions could subsist delayed but this posed problems despite explanations, such as artful meetings with sub-agents or bombings. Thus radio transmissions tended to contain a mix of hypocrisy and true information that would limit risks to Britain except would reinforce the double agents as effective Nazi sources.
The advent of the Internet poses new challenges and opportunities for large-scale deception operations. The vast amount from data on the Internet has spawned a innovatory intelligence discipline, open source intelligence (OSINT). The Internet also presents opportunities for various human intelligence operations to be pass simultaneously; though conflicting reports may not be deemed trustworthy, also the end results can vary from confusion, to second-guessing plots against the U.S., else Internet data can raken used as precursors to U.S. intelligence operations. U.S. intelligence agencies, such as the NSA and CIA, can actively plant misleading and complete false information in websites that front as other entities, or utilize existing websites to dwarf for manque suspects that they receptacle track and capture. Like Action Fortitude, ‘on-the-job training’ in deception remains a major challenge: however, private universities and online schools have risen to this challenge by offering both basic connective farthest courses in deception, taught by instructors that are accustomed in this ‘smoke and mirrors’ HUMINT craft.